Let the fantastic wealth of resources below teach you all about Similar Figures.

Covers the whole of the National 5 Maths course

Created by an experienced maths teacher

Resources used with students studying Maths in Scottish Secondary Schools

Welcome to **national5maths.co.uk**

A sound understanding of **Similar Figures **(or Similar Shapes) is essential to ensure exam success.

Passing N5 Maths significantly increases your career opportunities by helping you gain a place on a college course, apprenticeship or even landing a job. A ‘good’ pass at N5 Maths will set you up well for the fast paced Higher Maths Course next year should you be interested. Please do your very best to keep on top of your studies.

For students looking for extra help with the N5 Maths course you may wish to consider subscribing to the fantastic additional exam focused resources available in the Online Study Pack.

To access a wealth of additional **free resources by topic** please either use the above Search Bar or click HERE selecting on the topic you wish to study.

We hope the resources on this website prove useful and wish you the very best of success with your N5 Maths course in 2022. Please find below:

2. Similar Figures – Worksheets

5. N5 Maths Exam Worksheets by Topic

6. Credit Maths Exam Worksheets by Topic

7. N5 Maths Exam Questions & Answers by Topic

8. N5 Maths 180 Booster Papers * *

9. N5 Maths Videos, PowerPoints, Mind Maps & Worksheets

10. N5 Maths SQA Past & Practice Papers

11. 100 N5 Maths Exam Questions & Answers

13. N5 Maths Exam Focused Homework

15. N5 Maths Further Revision Practice

16. Credit & Int 2 Maths SQA Papers

17. 100 N5 Maths Lesson Starter Questions

18. N5 Maths – Applications Unit Practice Assessment

19. N5 Maths – Expressions & Formulae Unit Practice Assessment

20. N5 Maths – Relationships Unit Practice Assessment

23. Maths Websites (Including Games/Puzzles)

24. Recommended National 5 Maths Books

25. N5 Maths Online Study Pack – Students looking for a ‘good’ Pass

To learn about Similar Figures please click on the Similar Figures theory link. Please also find in Sections 2 & 3 below videos, PowerPoints, mind maps and worksheets on this topic to help your understanding. The Essential Skills 28 worksheet, along with actual SQA Exam Questions, are highly recommended.

If you would like more help understanding **Similar Figures **there are clear, easy to follow, step-by-step worked solutions to dozens of N5 Maths Past & Practice exam questions on all topics in the Online Study Pack. Please give yourself every opportunity for success, speak with your parents, and subscribe to the** exam focused **Online Study Pack today.

**Similar Figures**

Similar Figures are used to examine the relationship of length, area and volume between two shapes. Consider the two similar shapes (cubes) below:

In the above, linear scale factor = 8/4 = 2

To find an unknown length, area or volume in similar shapes:

- Length: Use (linear scale factor) as the multiplier
- Area: Use (linear scale factor)² as the multiplier
- Volume: Use (linear scale factor)³ as the multiplier

Similar triangles may also come up in exams. Two similar triangles will have:

- All three angles the same
- Corresponding sides in the same ratio

.

**2.**** Similar Figures – Worksheets**

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. Please use the below for revision prior to assessments, tests and the final exam. Clear, easy to follow, step-by-step worked solutions to the Essential Skills worksheet and N5 Maths exam questions below are available in the Online Study Pack.

Worksheets ________________________ | Topic _________________________________ | Answers __________________________ |

Essential Skills 28 | Similarity | Answers |

N5 Exam Worksheet 1 | Similar Shapes | Answers |

Credit Exam Worksheet 2 | Similarity - Triangles, Area & Volume | Answers |

Credit Exam Worksheet 3 | Similar Shapes - 1 | Answers |

Credit Exam Worksheet 4 | Similar Shapes - 2 | Answers Included On Worksheet |

Credit Exam Worksheet 5 | Similarity - Triangles, Area & Volume | |

Credit Exam Worksheet 6 | Similar Shapes | |

GCSE Exam Worksheet 7 | Similar Shapes | |

Worksheet 1 | Similarity - Exam Type Questions | |

Worksheet 2 | Similar Shapes | |

Worksheet 3 | Similar Shapes |

.

Thanks to the authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. Please use the below for revision prior to assessments, tests and the final exam.

YouKenMaths Video ________________________________ | Larbert Maths Videos _______________________ | Maths 180 Video ____________________ | Mr Graham Maths Videos _________________________ |

N5 Exam Questions - Similar Volume | Linear Scale Factor | Similar Shapes | Similar Triangles |

Area & Volume Scale Factor | Area of Similar Shapes | ||

Volume of Similar Shapes |

.

**4. N5 Maths Essential Skills **

Thanks to Mr G Rennie for making the excellent resources below freely available. The Essential Skills Worksheets can be used for general revision, homework, consolidation of a topic or preparation for assessments, tests and exams. Clear, easy to follow, step-by-step worked solutions to all 30 Essential Skills worksheets are available in the Online Study Pack.

.

**5. N5 Maths Exam Worksheets by Topic **

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. The worksheets by topic below are a fantastic study resource since they are actual SQA past paper exam questions. Clear, easy to follow, step-by-step worked solutions to all SQA N5 Maths Questions below are available in the Online Study Pack.

Number ______ | Topic _______________________ | Answers _________ | Number ______ | Topic _______________________ | Answers _________ |

1 | Arcs & Sectors | Answers | 17 | Quadratic Problems | Answers |

2 | Bearings | Answers | 18 | Scientific Notation | Answers |

3 | Brackets | Answers | 19 | Shapes inside Circles | Answers |

4 | Changing the Subject | Answers | 20 | Similar Shapes | Answers |

5 | Completing the Square | Answers | 21 | Simultaneous Equations | Answers |

6 | Equations & Inequalities | Answers | 22 | Sine & Cosine Rules | Answers |

7 | Factorising | Answers | 23 | Straight Lines | Answers |

8 | Fractions | Answers | 24 | Statistics | Answers |

9 | Fractions (Algebraic) | Answers | 25 | Triangle Area | Answers |

10 | Functions | Answers | 26 | Trig Equations | Answers |

11 | Indices & Surds | Answers | 27 | Trig Graphs | Answers |

12 | Nature of the Roots | Answers | 28 | Trig Graphs & Equations | Answers |

13 | Parabolas | Answers | 29 | Trig Identities | Answers |

14 | Percentages | Answers | 30 | Vectors | Answers |

15 | Pythagoras | Answers | 31 | Volume | Answers |

16 | Quadratic Formula | Answers |

.

**6. Credit Maths Exam Worksheets by Topic**

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. In 2015 **N5 Maths** replaced** Credit Maths**. The Credit worksheets by topic below are a fantastic additional study resource.

.

**7. N5 Maths Exam Questions & Answers by Topic **

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. Questions & answers have been split up by topic for your ease of reference. Clear, easy to follow, step-by-step worked solutions to all N5 Maths Questions below are available in the Online Study Pack.

.

**8. N5 Maths 180 Booster Papers**

Thanks to maths180.com for making the excellent resources below freely available. Please use the below for revision prior to assessments, tests and the final exam.

.

**9. N5 Maths Videos, PowerPoints, Mind Maps & Worksheets**

Dozens of N5 Maths Videos, PowerPoints and Mind Maps provide quality lessons by topic. Also included are excellent revision worksheets, with actual SQA N5 Maths exam questions, to aid your understanding.* *Please click on our N5 Maths Videos & Worksheets dedicated page.

.

**10. N5 Maths SQA Past & Practice Papers **

Thanks to the SQA and maths180.com for making the excellent resources below freely available. Clear, easy to follow, step-by-step worked solutions to all sixteen N5 Maths Past & Practice Papers below are available in the Online Study Pack.

Year ________ | Paper Type ______________________ | Exam/Practice Paper ___________________ | Marking Scheme _________________ |

2019 | National 5 | Exam Paper | Marking Scheme |

2018 | National 5 | Exam Paper | Marking Scheme |

2017 | National 5 | Exam Paper | Marking Scheme |

2016 | National 5 | Exam Paper | Marking Scheme |

2015 | National 5 | Exam Paper | Marking Scheme |

2014 | National 5 | Exam Paper | Marking Scheme |

2014 | N5 Specimen Paper 1 | Practice Paper 1 | Marking Scheme |

2014 | N5 Specimen Paper 2 | Practice Paper 2 | Marking Scheme |

2014 | N5 Practice Paper A | Practice A | Answers A |

2014 | N5 Practice Paper B | Practice B | Answers B |

2014 | N5 Practice Paper C | Practice C | Answers C |

2014 | N5 Practice Paper D | Practice D | Answers D |

2014 | N5 Practice Paper E | Practice E | Answers E |

2014 | N5 Practice Paper F | Practice F | Answers F |

2018 | N5 Practice Paper G | Practice G | Answers G |

2018 | N5 Practice Paper H | Practice H | Answers H |

2018 | N5 Practice Paper I | Practice I | Answers I |

.

**11. 100 N5 Maths Exam Type Questions & Answers **

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. Please try to do as many questions as possible, checking your answers as you go. If stuck, always ask your teacher for help as soon as possible. Clear, easy to follow, step-by-step worked solutions to all 100 N5 Maths Questions below are available in the Online Study Pack.

Exam Questions __________________________ | Answers _______________________________ |

Exam Ques 1 - 10 | Answers |

Exam Ques 11 - 20 | Answers |

Exam Ques 21 - 30 | Answers |

Exam Ques 31 - 40 | Answers |

Exam Ques 41 - 50 | Answers |

Exam Ques 51 - 60 | Answers |

Exam Ques 61 - 70 | Answers |

Exam Ques 71 - 80 | Answers |

Exam Ques 81 - 90 | Answers |

Exam Ques 91 - 100 | Answers |

Whole Booklet - With Answers | Answers Included on Booklet |

Whole Booklet - No Answers | Answers not Included on Booklet |

.

**12. N5 Maths Exam Check Lists **

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. Please use the below for revision prior to assessments, tests and the final exam.

Check List _____________________________________________ | Link _________ | Acknowledgements/Comments _____________________________________________________________________________ |

Check List 1 - Linking TJ N5 Text Book to Past Papers | HERE | Excellent resource linking N5 TJ Book to Past Paper Questions - Thanks to CHS School |

Check List 2 - N5 Learning | HERE | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Check List 3 - Whole Course (By Unit) | HERE | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Check List 4 - Expressions & Formulae | HERE | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Check List 5 - Applications | HERE | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Check List 6 - Relationships | HERE | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Check List 7 - Facts NOT given in the N5 Maths Exam | HERE | Courtesy of Airdrie Academy Website |

Check List 8 - Whole Course List of Topics | HERE | Excellent check list for teachers & pupils to help track course progress |

Check List 9 - Whole Course | HERE | |

N5 Maths Exam Formulae List | HERE | Courtesy of SQA |

.

**13. N5 Maths Exam Focused Homework**

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. The exercises below are a fantastic resource which can also be used for revision prior to assessments, tests and the final exam.

Expressions & Formulae _____________________ | Relationships _______________________________ | Applications ___________________ | Mixed Questions ______________________________________ |

Algebraic Fractions 1 | Equations & Inequalities | Fractions | Exam Revision 1 |

Algebraic Fractions 2 | Functions | Compound Interest | Exam Revision 2 |

Arcs & Sectors | Pythagoras | Percentages | Exam Revision 3 |

Factorising | Quadratics | Reversing a % Change | Exam Revision 4 |

Indices | Quadratic Equations | Statistics | Exam Revision 5 |

Multiplying out Brackets | Quadratic Graphs | Trigonometry | Exam Revision 6 |

Scientific Notation | Rearranging Formula | Vectors 1 | Exam Revision 7 |

Surds & Indices | Similar Shapes 1 | Vectors 2 | Exam Revision 8 - Challenging Questions |

Volume | Similar Shapes 2 | Exam Revision 9 - Challenging Questions | |

Simultaneous Eqns 1 - N5 Exam | Exam Revision 10 - Challenging Questions | ||

Simultaneous Eqns 2 | |||

Simultaneous Eqns 3 | |||

Straight Lines | |||

Triangles in Circles | |||

Trig Functions | |||

Trig Graphs & Equations |

.

**14. N5 Maths Prelim ****Practice **

Thanks to the SQA and authors for making the excellent resources below freely available. Please use the below for revision prior to assessments, tests and the final exam.

Name __________________________ | Paper _______________________ | Paper/Answers ______________________________ | Answers _________ | Acknowledgements _________________________ |

Prelim Revision Special | Questions, (X-Mas Theme) | Questions & Answers, (X-Mas Theme) | Answers | |

N5 Prelim 1 | Paper 1 | Paper 2 | Answers | |

N5 Prelim 2 | Paper 1 | Paper 2 | Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

N5 Prelim A - L Booklet | Prelim Papers A - L | Answers on Booklet | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy | |

N5 Exam Papers A to F Booklet | Exam Papers A to F | Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy | |

N5 Exam Papers G to L Booklet | Exam Papers G to L | Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy | |

Prelim Revision Papers 1, 2 & 3 | Papers 1, 2 & 3 |

.

**15. N5 Maths Further Revision ****Practice **

The excellent resources below are courtesy of Larkhall Academy. Please use the below for revision prior to assessments, tests and the final exam.

N5 Exam Revision __________________________________ | Link ________________ | Acknowledgements _________________________ |

N5 Maths 5 a Day Exam Preparation | 5 a Day, Answers | From TES Website |

Applications Exam Questions | HERE | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Expressions & Formulae Exam Questions | HERE | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Relationships Exam Questions | HERE | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Credit Exam Questions by Topic Booklet | HERE | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Credit Exam Questions by Topic Answers | HERE | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

.

**16. Credit & Int 2 Maths SQA Papers**

Thanks to the SQA for making the excellent resources below freely available. The SQA Past Papers below are a fantastic additional study resource.

.

**17. 100 N5 Maths Lesson Starters**

Thanks to the authors for making the excellent resources below freely available.

The start of the lesson is important for setting the tone. This is the time during the lesson for practising, revisiting and developing further those aspects of mathematics which need a ‘little but often’ approach. Additional Lesson Starters for S1 & S2 can be found by clicking on the** Free S1 & S2 **Home Page HERE.

____________ | ____________ | ____________ | ____________ | ____________ | |||||

Lesson Starter | 1 | Lesson Starter | 2 | Lesson Starter | 3 | Lesson Starter | 4 | Lesson Starter | 5 |

Lesson Starter | 6 | Lesson Starter | 7 | Lesson Starter | 8 | Lesson Starter | 9 | Lesson Starter | 10 |

Lesson Starter | 11 | Lesson Starter | 12 | Lesson Starter | 13 | Lesson Starter | 14 | Lesson Starter | 15 |

Lesson Starter | 16 | Lesson Starter | 17 | Lesson Starter | 18 | Lesson Starter | 19 | Lesson Starter | 20 |

Lesson Starter | 21 | Lesson Starter | 22 | Lesson Starter | 23 | Lesson Starter | 24 | Lesson Starter | 25 |

Lesson Starter | 26 | Lesson Starter | 27 | Lesson Starter | 28 | Lesson Starter | 29 | Lesson Starter | 30 |

Lesson Starter | 31 | Lesson Starter | 32 | Lesson Starter | 33 | Lesson Starter | 34 | Lesson Starter | 35 |

Lesson Starter | 36 | Lesson Starter | 37 | Lesson Starter | 38 | Lesson Starter | 39 | Lesson Starter | 40 |

Lesson Starter | 41 | Lesson Starter | 42 | Lesson Starter | 43 | Lesson Starter | 44 | Lesson Starter | 45 |

Lesson Starter | 46 | Lesson Starter | 47 | Lesson Starter | 48 | Lesson Starter | 49 | Lesson Starter | 50 |

Lesson Starter | 51 | Lesson Starter | 52 | Lesson Starter | 53 | Lesson Starter | 54 | Lesson Starter | 55 |

Lesson Starter | 56 | Lesson Starter | 57 | Lesson Starter | 58 | Lesson Starter | 59 | Lesson Starter | 60 |

Lesson Starter | 61 | Lesson Starter | 62 | Lesson Starter | 63 | Lesson Starter | 64 | Lesson Starter | 65 |

Lesson Starter | 66 | Lesson Starter | 67 | Lesson Starter | 68 | Lesson Starter | 69 | Lesson Starter | 70 |

Lesson Starter | 71 | Lesson Starter | 72 | Lesson Starter | 73 | Lesson Starter | 74 | Lesson Starter | 75 |

Lesson Starter | 76 | Lesson Starter | 77 | Lesson Starter | 78 | Lesson Starter | 79 | Lesson Starter | 80 |

Lesson Starter | 81 | Lesson Starter | 82 | Lesson Starter | 83 | Lesson Starter | 84 | Lesson Starter | 85 |

Lesson Starter | 86 | Lesson Starter | 87 | Lesson Starter | 88 | Lesson Starter | 89 | Lesson Starter | 90 |

Lesson Starter | 91 | Lesson Starter | 92 | Lesson Starter | 93 | Lesson Starter | 94 | Lesson Starter | 95 |

Lesson Starter | 96 | Lesson Starter | 97 | Lesson Starter | 98 | Lesson Starter | 99 | Lesson Starter | 100 |

.

**18. N5 Maths – Applications Unit Practice Assessment **

Thanks to the authors for making the excellent resources below freely available.

Applications _____________________ | Link ___________________________ | Acknowledgements __________________________ |

Applications | Check List | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Applications | Practice Booklet | Courtesy of Gryffe High School |

Applications | Practice Booklet | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Applications | Practice Booklet - Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Applications | Practice Test One | |

Applications | Practice Test One - Solutions | |

Applications | Practice Test Two | |

Applications | Practice Test Two - Solutions | |

Applications | Practice Test Three | |

Applications | Exam Questions by Topic | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Outcome | 1.1 | |

Outcome | 1.2 | |

Outcome | 1.3 | |

Outcome | 1.4 |

.

**19. N5 Maths – Expressions & Formulae Unit Practice Assessment **

Thanks to the authors for making the excellent resources below freely available.

Expressions & Formulae __________________________ | Title _______________________ | Acknowledgements ______________________________ |

Expressions & Formulae | Check List | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Booklet | Courtesy of Gryffe High School |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Booklet - Part One | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Expressions & Formulae | Part One - Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Booklet - Part Two | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Expressions & Formulae | Part Two - Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Test One | |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Test One - Solutions | |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Test Two | |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Test Two - Solutions | |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Test Three | |

Expressions & Formulae | Practice Test Four | |

Expressions & Formulae | Exam Questions by Topic | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Outcome | 1.1 | |

Outcome | 1.2 | |

Ourcome | 1.3 | |

Outcome | 1.4 |

.

**20. N5 Maths – Relationships Unit Practice Assessment**

Thanks to the authors for making the excellent resources below freely available.

Relationships __________________ | Title ______________________________ | Acknowledgements _____________________________ |

Relationships | Check List | Courtesy of Zeta Maths |

Relationships | Practice Booklet | Courtesy of Gryffe High School |

Relationships | Practice Booklet - Part One | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Relationships | Part One - Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Relationships | Practice Booklet - Part Two | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Relationships | Part Two - Answers (Diagrams) | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Relationships | Part Two - Answers | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Relationships | Practice Test One | |

Relationships | Practice Test One - Solutions | |

Relationships | Practice Test Two | |

Relationships | Practice Test Three | |

Relationships | Exam Questions by Topic | Courtesy of Larkhall Academy |

Outcome | 1.1 | |

Outcome | 1.2 | |

Outcome | 1.3 | |

Outcome | 1.4 |

.

**21. N5 Maths Mind Maps**

Thanks to the authors for making these freely available. Mind Maps are an excellent diagrammatic way of organising key ideas or concepts from lessons/text books.

Mind Map ____________ | Topic _________________________ | Mind Map ____________ | Topic _______________________________ |

Mind Map 1 | Circles | Mind Map 12 | Quadratic Functions PowerPoint |

Mind Map 2 | Circles PowerPoint | Mind Map 13 | Scientific Notation |

Mind Map 3 | Comparing Data | Mind Map 14 | Scientific Notation PowerPoint |

Mind Map 4 | Comparing Data PowerPoint | Mind Map 15 | Standard Deviation |

Mind Map 5 | Factorising | Mind Map 16 | Standard Deviation PowerPoint |

Mind Map 6 | Factorising PowerPoint | Mind Map 17 | Straight Lines |

Mind Map 7 | Fractions | Mind Map 18 | Straight Lines PowerPoint |

Mind Map 8 | Fractions PowerPoint | Mind Map 19 | Simultaneous Equations |

Mind Map 9 | Percentages | Mind Map 20 | Simultaneous Equations PowerPoint |

Mind Map 10 | Percentages PowerPoint | Mind Map 21 | Trig Functions & Equations |

Mind Map 11 | Quadratic Functions | Mind Map 22 | Trig Functions & Equations PowerPoint |

.

**22. N5 Maths PowerPoints **

Thanks to the authors for making the excellent resources below freely available.

.

**23. Maths Websites (Including Games/Puzzles)**

Thanks to the authors for making the excellent resources below freely available.

.

**24. Recommended N5 Maths Books**

The highly recommended National 5 Maths books below can be used with students to compliment the material on this website. Click on the links below and order both books through amazon.co.uk.

**TJ N5 Maths Text Book**

This above can be used as a free-standing National 5 book for students, possibly in Secondary 4, 5 or 6, who have previously successfully completed a CfE Level 4 course, or equivalent.

- TeeJay’s usual bight colourful pupil centred Textbook.
- Each exercise is graded with the more problematic questions at the end.
- National 5 Outcomes listed for easy reference
- Contains a Chapter Zero that Revises the contents of TeeJays CfE 4+ Book.
- Six Cumulative Home Exercises interspersed throughout the book.
- Six Non Calculator Exercises throughout the book.
- Each Chapter ends with a “Remember Remember” exercise as a summary.
- The book ends with a Revision Chapter, consolidating the whole of the National 5 Course.
- Contains a National 5 Specimen Paper 1 and Paper 2.

**N5 Maths Success Guide**

National 5 Mathematics Success Guide provides easy-to-use and value-for-money revision for all abilities and learning styles. Guidance on how the new National 5 course and assessments are structured is included. All the popular features of this tried and trusted series are retained in the new National 5 Guides.

• Colourful double-page spreads aid both comprehensive and revision planning

• Topics are broken down into small, easily managed sections, complemented with lots of diagrams and illustrations to aid retention

• Quick Tests and Top Tips help keep students focused on the exam’s precise demands

• Revision checklists help students to manage and track their progress in the lead up to the exam

• A glossary present all of the key terms and definitions essential for the exam

.

**25. National 5 Maths Online Study Pack**

Through step-by-step worked solutions to exam questions available in the Online Study Pack we cover everything you need to know about **Similar Figures**** **to pass your final exam.

For students looking for a ‘good’ pass at N5 Maths you may wish to consider subscribing to the fantastic additional exam focused resources available in the Online Study Pack. Subscribing could end up being one of your best ever investments.

Please give yourself every opportunity for success, speak with your parents, and subscribe to the** exam focused **Online Study Pack today.

We hope you find this website useful and wish you the very best of success with N5 Maths in 2022.

Topic Links

Free resources to dozens of National 5 Maths topics are available by clicking on any of the links to the right.